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The future of ice sheets and sea ice: Between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss

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Notz,  D.
The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Research Group The Sea Ice in the Earth System, The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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PNAS_106-20590.pdf
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Citation

Notz, D. (2009). The future of ice sheets and sea ice: Between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 20590-20595. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902356106.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0011-F768-6
Abstract
We discuss the existence of cryospheric “tipping points” in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice–albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.