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Journal Article

Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change

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Roeckner,  E.
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;
Climate Modelling, The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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Stier,  P.
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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Feichter,  J.
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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Kloster,  S.
The Land in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;
IMPRS on Earth System Modelling, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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Esch,  M.
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;
Climate Modelling, The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons37146

Fischer-Bruns,  I.
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Roeckner, E., Stier, P., Feichter, J., Kloster, S., Esch, M., & Fischer-Bruns, I. (2006). Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change. Climate Dynamics, 27, 553-571. doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0147-3.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0011-FDBC-5
Abstract
The past and future evolution of atmospheric composition and climate has been simulated with a version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The system consists of the atmosphere, including a detailed representation of tropospheric aerosols, the land surface, and the ocean, including a model of the marine biogeochemistry which interacts with the atmosphere via the dust and sulfur cycles. In addition to the prescribed concentrations of carbon dioxide, ozone and other greenhouse gases, the model is driven by natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol), and by emissions of mineral dust, sea salt, sulfur, black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). Transient climate simulations were performed for the twentieth century and extended into the twenty-first century, according to SRES scenario A1B, with two different assumptions on future emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (BC, POM). In the first experiment, BC and POM emissions decrease over Europe and China but increase at lower latitudes (central and South America, Africa, Middle East, India, Southeast Asia). In the second experiment, the BC and POM emissions are frozen at their levels of year 2000. According to these experiments the impact of projected changes in carbonaceaous aerosols on the global mean temperature is negligible, but significant changes are found at low latitudes. This includes a cooling of the surface, enhanced precipitation and runoff, and a wetter surface. These regional changes in surface climate are caused primarily by the atmospheric absorption of sunlight by increasing BC levels and, subsequently, by thermally driven circulations which favour the transport of moisture from the adjacent oceans. The vertical redistribution of solar energy is particularly large during the dry season in central Africa when the anomalous atmospheric heating of up to 60 W m 2 and a corresponding decrease in surface solar radiation leads to a marked surface cooling, reduced evaporation and a higher level of soil moisture, which persists throughout the year and contributes to the enhancement of precipitation during the wet season.