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Climate evolution in the last five centuries simulated by an atmosphere-ocean model: global temperatures, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Late Maunder Minimum

MPS-Authors
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Cubasch,  Ulrich
Model & Data Group, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons37234

Legutke,  Stefanie
Model & Data Group, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons37146

Fischer-Bruns,  Irene
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons37318

Schlese,  Ulrich
The Atmosphere in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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MetZs_13-271.pdf
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Citation

Zorita, E., Von Storch, H., Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J., Cubasch, U., Luterbacher, J., Legutke, S., et al. (2004). Climate evolution in the last five centuries simulated by an atmosphere-ocean model: global temperatures, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Late Maunder Minimum. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 13(4), 271-289.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0012-00BA-5
Abstract
The main results of a transient climate simulation of the last 500 years with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model driven by estimated solar variability, volcanic activity and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are presented and compared with several empirical climate reconstructions. Along the last five centuries the climate model simulates a climate colder than mean 20th century conditions almost globally, and the degree of cooling is clearly larger than in most empirical reconstructions of global and North hemispheric near-surface air temperature (MANN et al., 1998; JONES et al., 1998). The simulated temperatures tend to agree more closely with the reconstruction of ESPER et al. (2002) based on extratropical tree-ring chronologies. The model simulates two clear minima of the global mean temperature around 1700 A.D. (the Late Maunder Minimum) and around 1820 A.D. (the Dalton Minimum). The temperature trends simulated after the recovery from these minima are as large as the observed warming in the 20th century. More detailed results concerning the simulated Late Maunder Minimum, together with a spatially resolved historical reconstruction of the temperature field in Europe, are presented. It is found that the broad patterns of temperature deviations are well captured by the model, with stronger cooling in Central and Eastern Europe and weaker cooling along the Atlantic coast. However, the model simulates an intense drop of air-temperature in the North Atlantic ocean, together with an extensive sea-ice cover south of Greenland and lower salinity in North Atlantic at high latitudes, reminiscent of the Great Salinity Anomaly. Also, during the Late Maunder Minimum the intensities of the Golf Stream and the Kuroshio are reduced. This weakening is consistent with a reduced wind-stress forcing upon the ocean surface