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  Kilonova and Optical Afterglow from Binary Neutron Star Mergers. II. Optimal Search Strategy for Serendipitous Observations and Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Triggers

Zhu, J.-P., Wu, S., Yang, Y.-P., Zhang, B., Song, H.-R., Gao, H., et al. (in preparation). Kilonova and Optical Afterglow from Binary Neutron Star Mergers. II. Optimal Search Strategy for Serendipitous Observations and Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Triggers.

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2110.10469.pdf (Preprint), 3MB
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 Creators:
Zhu, Jin-Ping, Author
Wu, Shichao1, Author              
Yang, Yuan-Pei, Author
Zhang, Bing, Author
Song, Hao-Ran, Author
Gao, He, Author
Cao, Zhoujian, Author
Yu, Yun-Wei, Author
Affiliations:
1Observational Relativity and Cosmology, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_24011              

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Free keywords: Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, astro-ph.HE, Astrophysics, Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, astro-ph.SR,General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, gr-qc
 Abstract: In the second work of this series, we explore the optimal search strategy for serendipitous and gravitational-wave-triggered target-of-opportunity observations of kilonovae (KNe) and optical short-duration gamma-ray burst (sGRB) afterglows (AGs) from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers, assuming that cosmological KNe are AT2017gfo-like (but with viewing-angle dependence) and that the properties of AGs are consistent with those of cosmological sGRB AGs. A one-day cadence serendipitous search strategy with an exposure time of $\sim30\,$s can always achieve an optimal search strategy of KNe and AGs for various survey projects. We show that the optimal detection rates of the KN-dominated (AG-dominated) events are $\sim0.2/0.5/0.8/20\,$yr$^{-1}$ ($\sim500/300/600/3000\,$yr$^{-1}$) for ZTF/Mephisto/WFST/LSST, respectively. A better search strategy for SiTian is to increase the exposure time. SiTian can find $\sim5(6000)\,$yr$^{-1}$ KN-dominated (AG-dominated) events. We predict abundant off-axis orphan AGs may be recorded in the survey database although not been identified. For target-of-opportunity observations, we simulate the maximum BNS gravitational-wave (GW) detection rates, which are $\sim27/210/1800/2.0\times10^5\,$yr$^{-1}$, in the networks of 2nd/2.5th/3rd(Voyager)/3rd(ET\&CE)-generation GW detectors. In the upcoming 2nd-generation networks, follow-up observations with a limiting magnitude of $m_{\rm limit}\gtrsim22-23\,$mag can discover all EM signals from BNS GW events. Among these detected GW events, $\sim60\%$ events ($\sim16\,$yr$^{-1}$) can detect clear KN signals, while AG-dominated events would account for the other $\sim40\%$ events ($\sim11\,$yr$^{-1}$). In the 2.5th- and 3rd(Voyager)-generation era, the critical magnitudes for the detection of EM emissions from all BNS GW events would be $\sim23.5\,$mag and $\sim25\,$mag, respectively.

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 Dates: 2021-10-20
 Publication Status: Not specified
 Pages: 21 pages, 7 figures, 6 tables, submitted
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: arXiv: 2110.10469
 Degree: -

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