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  Pistachio (Pistacia vera) domestication and dispersal out of Central Asia

Mir Makhamad, B., Bjorn, R., Stark, S., & Spengler III, R. N. (2022). Pistachio (Pistacia vera) domestication and dispersal out of Central Asia. Agronomy, 12(8): 1758. doi:10.3390/agronomy12081758.

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Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Mir Makhamad, Basira1, Author           
Bjorn, Rasmus1, Author           
Stark, Sören, Author
Spengler III, Robert N.1, Author           
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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Free keywords: archaeobotany; history; linguistics; arboriculture; tree crop
 Abstract: The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is commercially cultivated in semi-arid regions around the globe. Archaeobotanical, genetic, and linguistic data suggest that the pistachio was brought under cultivation somewhere within its wild range, spanning southern Central Asia, northern Iran, and northern Afghanistan. Historically, pistachio cultivation has primarily relied on grafting, suggesting that, as with many Eurasian tree crops, domestication resulted from genetically locking hybrids or favored individuals in place. Plant domestication and dispersal research has largely focused on weedy, highly adaptable, self-compatible annuals; in this discussion, we present a case study that involves a dioecious long-lived perennialmdash;a domestication process that would have required a completely different traditional ecological knowledge system than that utilized for grain cultivation. We argue that the pistachio was brought under cultivation in southern Central Asia, spreading westward by at least 2000 years ago (maybe a few centuries earlier to the mountains of modern Syria) and moved eastward only at the end of the first millennium AD. The seeds remain rare in archaeological sites outside its native range, even into the mid-second millennium AD, and may not have been widely cultivated until the past few hundred years.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-07-23
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 23
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: 1. Introduction
1.1. Botany and Ecology
1.2. Progenitor Range and Ecology
2. Domestication
2.1. Grafting and Pollination
2.2. Archaeobotanical and Historical Sources
2.3. Archaeobotany—Central Asian Data
3. Debated Early Evidence
4. Dispersal
5. Linguistics
6. Conclusions
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12081758
Other: shh3305
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Project name : FEDD
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Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

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Title: Agronomy
  Other : Pathways to Plant Domestication: New Insights from Archaeobotany (Special Issue)
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Basel, Switzerland : MDPI
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 12 (8) Sequence Number: 1758 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2073-4395
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2073-4395