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#### The Lazarus project : A pragmatic approach to binary black hole

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##### Citation

Baker, J. G., Campanelli, M., & Lousto, C. O. (2002). The Lazarus project: A pragmatic
approach to binary black hole.* Physical Review D,* *65*:
044001.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-5531-7

##### Abstract

We present a detailed description of techniques developed to combine 3D numerical simulations and, subsequently, a single black hole close-limit approximation. This method has made it possible to compute the first complete waveforms covering the post-orbital dynamics of a binary black hole system with the numerical simulation covering the essential non-linear interaction before the close limit becomes applicable for the late time dynamics. To determine when close-limit perturbation theory is applicable we apply a combination of invariant a priori estimates and a posteriori consistency checks of the robustness of our results against exchange of linear and non-linear treatments near the interface. Once the merically modeled binary system reaches a regime that can be treated as perturbations of the Kerr spacetime, we must approximately relate the numerical coordinates to the perturbative background coordinates. We also perform a rotation of a numerically defined tetrad to asymptotically reproduce the tetrad required in the perturbative treatment. We can then produce numerical Cauchy data for the close-limit evolution in the form of the Weyl scalar $psi_4$ and its time derivative $partial_tpsi_4$ with both objects being first order coordinate and tetrad invariant. The Teukolsky equation in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates is adopted to further continue the evolution. To illustrate the application of these techniques we evolve a single Kerr hole and compute the spurious radiation as a measure of the error of the whole procedure. We also briefly discuss the extension of the project to make use of improved full numerical evolutions and outline the approach to a full understanding of astrophysical black hole binary systems which we can now pursue.