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Journal Article

Gravity in the Era of Equality: Towards solutions to the Hubble problem without fine-tuned initial conditions


Zumalacarregui,  Miguel
Astrophysical and Cosmological Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Zumalacarregui, M. (2020). Gravity in the Era of Equality: Towards solutions to the Hubble problem without fine-tuned initial conditions. Physical Review D, 102(2): 023523. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.023523.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-0DBC-9
Discrepant measurements of the Universe's expansion rate ($H_0$) may signal physics beyond the standard cosmological model. Here I describe two early modified gravity mechanisms that reconcile the value of $H_0$ by increasing the expansion rate in the era of matter-radiation equality. These mechanisms, based on viable Horndeski theories, require significantly less fine-tuned initial conditions than early dark energy with oscillating scalar fields. In Imperfect Dark Energy at Equality (IDEE), the initial energy density dilutes slower than radiation but faster than matter, naturally peaking around the era of equality. The minimal IDEE model, a cubic Galileon, is too constrained by the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to relieve the $H_0$ tension. In Enhanced Early Gravity (EEG), the scalar field value modulates the cosmological strength of gravity. The minimal EEG model, an exponentially coupled cubic Galileon, gives a Planck+BAO value $H_0=68.7 \pm 1.5$ (68\% c.l.), reducing the tension with SH0ES from $4.4\sigma$ to $2.6\sigma$. Additionally, Galileon contributions to cosmic acceleration may reconcile $H_0$ via Late-Universe Phantom Expansion (LUPE). Combining LUPE, EEG and $\Lambda$ reduces the tension between Planck, BAO and SH0ES to $2.5\sigma$. I will also describe additional tests of coupled Galileons based on local gravity tests, primordial element abundances and gravitational waves. While further model building is required to fully resolve the $H_0$ problem and satisfy all available observations, these examples show the wealth of possibilities to solve cosmological tensions beyond Einstein's General Relativity.