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Journal Article

Stellar models of Betelgeuse constrained using observed surface conditions


Takahashi,  Koh
Computational Relativistic Astrophysics, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Luo, T., Umeda, H., Yoshida, T., & Takahashi, K. (2022). Stellar models of Betelgeuse constrained using observed surface conditions. The Astrophysical Journal, 927(1): 115. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac4f5f.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000A-2184-B
We study stellar models for Betelgeuse using the HR diagram and surface
abundances as observational constraints. Previous studies on Betelgeuse have
not systematically investigated the surface abundances, but we believe they can
be impacted by, and thus be used as an observational constraint for various
parameters such as initial mass, rotation, and overshoot scheme. We investigate
stellar models with varying initial mass as they evolve past the main sequence,
and we examine the red supergiant (RSG) properties in detail. For each mass, we
vary the initial rotation up to $\sim$ 300 $km\:s^{-1}$, and test two different
overshoot parameters. Overall, the acceptable initial mass range is 12 to 25
$M_\odot$, but for non-rotating models only, the range is decreased to 15 to 24
$M_\odot$. Also for rotating models, we find that $v/v_{\rm K} = 0.3$ is the
upper limit for initial rotation, as more rapidly rotating models are unable to
fit to Betelgeuse's surface abundances as an RSG. In addition, we report two
possibilities for the current stage of evolution, core helium burning or core
carbon burning and beyond. We find that certain 17 $M_\odot$ models could fit
to both stages. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in the
context of merger scenarios which have been suggested as a mechanism to attain
the observed surface velocity of Betelgeuse.