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State of the Art on Neural Rendering


Tewari,  Ayush
Computer Graphics, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;


Theobalt,  Christian       
Computer Graphics, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;

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Tewari, A., Fried, O., Thies, J., Sitzmann, V., Lombardi, S., Sunkavalli, K., et al. (2020). State of the Art on Neural Rendering. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.03805.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-E114-4
Efficient rendering of photo-realistic virtual worlds is a long standing
effort of computer graphics. Modern graphics techniques have succeeded in
synthesizing photo-realistic images from hand-crafted scene representations.
However, the automatic generation of shape, materials, lighting, and other
aspects of scenes remains a challenging problem that, if solved, would make
photo-realistic computer graphics more widely accessible. Concurrently,
progress in computer vision and machine learning have given rise to a new
approach to image synthesis and editing, namely deep generative models. Neural
rendering is a new and rapidly emerging field that combines generative machine
learning techniques with physical knowledge from computer graphics, e.g., by
the integration of differentiable rendering into network training. With a
plethora of applications in computer graphics and vision, neural rendering is
poised to become a new area in the graphics community, yet no survey of this
emerging field exists. This state-of-the-art report summarizes the recent
trends and applications of neural rendering. We focus on approaches that
combine classic computer graphics techniques with deep generative models to
obtain controllable and photo-realistic outputs. Starting with an overview of
the underlying computer graphics and machine learning concepts, we discuss
critical aspects of neural rendering approaches. This state-of-the-art report
is focused on the many important use cases for the described algorithms such as
novel view synthesis, semantic photo manipulation, facial and body reenactment,
relighting, free-viewpoint video, and the creation of photo-realistic avatars
for virtual and augmented reality telepresence. Finally, we conclude with a
discussion of the social implications of such technology and investigate open
research problems.